Ladder track or gathering line 

Points and Crossings Railway

Indian Railway Signalling

Points and Crossings Railway and Signalling & Interlocking,Turn Outs, Left hand turnout,Right hand turnout,Main track or main line,Branch track,Flange way clearance,Stock rails,Tongue rails, Stretcher bar,Switch,Toe of switch, Heel of switch,Throw of switch – 9.5cms for B.G,Facing points and facing direction,Trailing points and trailing direction, Check rails,Wing rails,ANC,TNC, Interlaced Sleepers,Diamond crossing,Cross over,Scissors cross over, Ladder track or gathering lines,Gauntlet track,Cross Over,Scissor Cross Over,Ladder track or gathering line,Gauntlet Track, Classic faction of Signalling,Operation Characteristics, Functional Characteristics,Operation Characteristics, Reception Signals,Home signal, Starter signals,Advance starter Points and Crossings Railway,points and crossings in railways pdf,point and crossing in railway,points and crossings in railways ppt,point and crossing of railway track,  points and crossings in indian railways pdf,points and crossings in railway track,points and crossings in indian railways ppt,points and crossings in railway,point crossing indian railway,points crossings railway track 

Points and Crossings Railway | Signalling & Interlocking

 Signalling & Interlocking Points and Crossings Railway

Points and Crossings Railway :- These are the arrangements provided in a railway track to divert a train from main line to branch line.
Turn Outs: pair of points and a crossing, to divert a train.
Left hand turnout: if train is diverted to left of main track in facing direction.
• Right hand turnout: if train is diverted to right of main track in facing direction.

Left hand turnout

Left hand turnout

 

Right hand turnout

Right hand turnout

Left hand turnout / Right hand turnout

Both Left and Right hand turnouts

Technical Terms

• Main track or main line
• Branch track
• Flange way clearance
• Stock rails
• Tongue rails
• Stretcher bar
• Switch

• Toe of switch
• Heel of switch
• Throw of switch – 9.5cms for B.G
• Facing points and facing direction
• Trailing points and trailing direction
• Check rails
• Wing rails
• ANC
• TNC

Through Sleepers

• Sleepers provided under both railway tracks i.e main line and branch line
• Purpose is to maintain both tracks at same level

Through Sleepers

Interlaced Sleepers

• Sleepers laid when long sleepers are not available

Interlaced Sleepers

Type of crossings

to transformed from one track to another parallel track
• Various tracks available are
• Diamond crossing
• Cross over

• Scissors cross over
• Ladder track or gathering lines
• Gauntlet track

Diamond crossing

• It consists of 2 acute angles and 2 obtuse angles

Diamond Crossing

 

Cross Over

1. Provided when one track is to be diverted to another parallel track.
2. It consists of 2 set of points and 2 acute crossings.

Cross Over

Scissor Cross Over

• Combination of one cross over with the another one in opposite direction

Scissor Cross over

Ladder track or gathering line

• Number of parallel lanes are connected

Ladder track or gathering line 

Gauntlet Track

When two tracks of same or different gauges running parallel to each other, they are converted into single track at bridges for economizing.

Gauntlet Track

Signalling

• It consists of systems, devices and means by which trains are operated efficiently and tracks are used to max. extent Objectives of Signalling.
• Facilities for efficient movement of trains.

• Safety between trains.
• Max use of track.
• To guide trains movement during maintenance and repairs.

Signalling

Classic faction of Signalling

1) Operation Characteristics
a) Detonating (Fog or Audible) signals
b) Hand (Visual Indication) signals
c) Fixed (Visual Indication) signals

2) Functional Characteristics
a) Stop or Semaphore type signals
b) Warner signals
c) Shunting signals
d) Coloured light signals
e) Locational Characteristics
f) Reception Signals: Outer & Home signal
g) Departure Signals: Starter & Advance starter

Operation Characteristics

1) Detonating (Fog or Audible) signals: during the foggy & cloudy weather when hand or fixed signals are not visible, detonators are
placed on rails which explode with a loud when train passes over them. Generally placed before 400-500m ahead of the signal to enable
the driver to stop the train or to obey it.
2) Hand (Visual Indication) signals: hand signals are given by flags fixed to wooden handle or by bare arms during day times and lamps with glass sides or green, red and amber during night times. Generally used by guards, station masters, cabin man, gang man, key man or any authorised man.
3) Fixed (Visual Indication) signals: theses signals are usually fixed at a place.

Operation Characteristics

 

1) Stop or Semaphore type signals: ordinary position is Horizontal but it can be lowered to any angle by pulling
the wire from cabin. ON indicates stop or danger, OFF Indicates proceed.
2) Warner signals: similar to semaphore signal at the entrance to station except a V-notch at free end

Functional Characteristics

1) Stop or Semaphore type signals: ordinary position is Horizontal but it can be lowered to any angle by pulling the wire from cabin. ON indicates stop or danger, OFF Indicates proceed.
2) Warner signals: similar to semaphore signal at the entrance to station except a V-notch at free end

Functional Characteristics 1

Functional Characteristics 1

3. Shunting (Disc or ground) signals: used for shunting operation at station yards. Shape of circular disc with red band on a white background.  The disc can revolve in a vertical plane by pulling the lever arm.
• Horizontal positions indicate STOP.
• Inclined position (450) indicates PROCEED.
4) Coloured light signals: with the introduction of electric traction, semaphore signals are replaced by colour light signals both during day and night.

Color Light Signal
                                                                                        Color Light Signal

1) Reception Signals: Signals which control the reception of trains into a station. They are two types i.e Outer & Home signal
Outer signal – it is fist stop signal at a station and it must be placed at adequate distance(0.54km for B.G and 0.4km for M.G) before railway station.
Generally a warner signal is provided. In stop position, driver must stop train at a distance of about 90m before outer signal and then proceed to home signal with caution

Home signal – this signal indicates which line is to be used So main function is to protect the sidings already occupied not more than 180m away from the start of switches

2) Departure Signals: Signals which control the dispatch of trains from the station. They are two types i.e Starter & Advance starter
• Starter signals – it is last stop signal at the station. It is the limit up to which trains at a station come to stand or halt.
• Advance starter – it is last stop signal at station. It indicates that train has left the station and station master is no more responsible of station master. 180m beyond the switches.

 

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